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Chicago Style: Audiovisual Sources

A guide to writing papers and citing sources in Chicago style.


For a References page, your citations need to be double spaced and have a hanging indent. A hanging indent just means that every line after the first in your citation is indented 0.5". 

In Microsoft Word (PC or Mac), highlight your citation and right click on it. Select "Paragraph" in the menu that appears, then under "Indentation" click on the Special drop down and select "Hanging". Make sure the "By" field is set to 0.5".

Audiovisual Sources

Audiovisual citations will include the same types of information, but there may be some changes necessary due to medium. Keep in mind that online sources need to be identified by their URL, physical items should include additional information as necessary (number of disks/tapes), and that all elements need to be separated by periods. These elements include:

  1. Name of the performer, composer, or conductor (lastname, firstname middle).
  2. Recording Title in italicized characters (if part of a larger work).
  3. Title of Work (in quotation marks).
  4. 'by’, if necessary (e.g. composed by, directed by)
  5. Name of the composer, writer, and other content creators, when necessary.
  6. Publisher Name of the publishing/recording company.
  7. Identification Number (for some recordings).
  8. Copyright date or date of production.
  9. Medium of the audiovisual material being used (e.g. CD, DVD, radio broadcast, etc).
  10. Timestamp (if source happens at a specific point in the recording)
  11. URL/DOI (for online materials).

For a video recording, use this layout:

Title of program (in italicized characters). “Title of Episode.” Episode number (if available). Name of important director/writers/narrators/performers.

Air Date. Name of network.

For an audio recording, this is the basic layout:

Performer (lastname, firstname). Title of piece (in quotations if standalone, in italicized characters if part of larger work or production). By

Creator(s) (firstname lastname). Publishing/recording company. ID# (if necessary). Recording/Copyright date. Title of larger work (if

piece is part of a larger work or album), Medium. Timestamp. URL/DOI.


Video Recordings

Journey to Planet Earth. "Land of Plenty, Land of Want." Directed by Hal Weiner. Written by Hal Weiner. Narrated by Kelly McGillis. 1999. PBS.

Thelma & Louise. Directed by Ridley Scott. 1991. Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment, 2004. DVD.

Audio Recordings

Holiday, Billie. Vocal performance of “I’m a Fool to Want You.” By Joel Herron, Frank Sinatra, and Jack Wolf. Recorded February 20, 1958, with Ray Ellis. On Lady in Satin, Columbia CL 1157, 331/3 rpm.

New York Ensemble, with Edward Carroll (trumpet) and Edward Brewer (organ).  Art of the Trumpet, recorded at the Madeira Festival, June 1-2, 1981. Vox/Turnabout, PVT 7183, 1982, compact disc.