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Chicago style is the set of rules for layout and citation of papers created by the University of Chicago. The 17th and current edition of The Chicago Manual of Style was published in 2017. Chicago style is commonly used in historical studies and some social science publications.
- 1" margins on all four sides
- Times New Roman; 12 pt. font
- Text should be double-spaced, with the exception of:
- Block quotes
- Table Titles
- Figure Captions
- Use a 1/2” indent for paragraph beginnings, block quotes and bibliographic indents.
- Bibliographic and notation entries should be single spaced internally, but contain a space between each entry.
- Page numbers should be placed in the header of the first page of text, beginning with number 1. Continue your page numbers till the end of your bibliography.
- Longer publications should use Subheadings.
- Assemble your paper in the following order:
- Cover/Title page
- Body of the paper
- Appendix (if needed)
- Endnotes (if using endnote style)
- Center the title of your page around half-way down.
- If your paper has a subtitle, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the next line.
- Center your name directly under the title.
- Center your teacher’s name, course title, and date, in three separate lines, directly underneath your name.
- Do not bold, underline, or otherwise decorate your title.
- Do not put a page number on your cover page and do not include it in your page count total.
Names and Numbers
- Use the full name of any person or agency the first time you reference them in a paper. For agencies, include the acronym in parentheses after the full name when first used, e.g. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). After that, you may choose to use only a person’s last name, or agency acronym.
- Write out any numbers lower than 100.
- Footnotes will always appear at the bottom of the page where the reference occurs and endnotes go on a separate page after the body of the paper.
- Place the note number at the end of the sentence in which the reference occurs and after any punctuation; remember to superscript it.
- If using endnotes, title the top of the first page as ‘Notes’ in 12 pt. Times New Roman font. Do not embolden the title.
- All notes should be typed in 12pt font using Times New Roman.
- Within the notes themselves, numbers are full-sized, and are followed by a period.
- Indent the first line of any footnote 1/2” from the margin. Other lines will be flushed left (this formatting is opposite of the bibliography).
- Notes should be typed using single-space, but different notes should contain a space between them.
- Only use Arabic numerals, not Roman.
- Never reuse a number.
- Use a shortened citation for sources you refer to more than once.
- If citing multiple sources in a single note, separate each citation with a semicolon.
- Never use two note numbers at the end of a sentence (see above).
- If citing the same work again immediately after you've already cited it, use ibid.
- The bibliography should start on a new page, and be titled ‘Bibliography’ at the top in 12 pt. Times New Roman font. Do not embolden the title.
- Use proper formatting for each type of source and always using a hanging indent. The first line of the citation will begin on the margin, subsequent lines are indented (opposite of a footnote/endnote).
- The bibliography must be ordered alphabetically.
- Entries should be typed single-space with a blank line between each separate citation.
- If you have multiple bibliographic entries from the same author, it is acceptable to use what is called the ‘3-em’ dash to replace the name of the content creators.
Chicago Manual of Style
The Chicago Manual of Style by
Publication Date: 2017-09-05
Technologies may change, but the need for clear and accurate communication never goes out of style. That is why for more than one hundred years The Chicago Manual of Style has remained the definitive guide for anyone who works with words. In the seven years since the previous edition debuted, we have seen an extraordinary evolution in the way we create and share knowledge. This seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style has been prepared with an eye toward how we find, create, and cite information that readers are as likely to access from their pockets as from a bookshelf. It offers updated guidelines on electronic workflows and publication formats, tools for PDF annotation and citation management, web accessibility standards, and effective use of metadata, abstracts, and keywords. It recognizes the needs of those who are self-publishing or following open access or Creative Commons publishing models. The citation chapters reflect the ever-expanding universe of electronic sources--including social media posts and comments, private messages, and app content--and also offer updated guidelines on such issues as DOIs, time stamps, and e-book locators. Other improvements are independent of technological change. The chapter on grammar and usage includes an expanded glossary of problematic words and phrases and a new section on syntax as well as updated guidance on gender-neutral pronouns and bias-free language. Key sections on punctuation and basic citation style have been reorganized and clarified. To facilitate navigation, headings and paragraph titles have been revised and clarified throughout. And the bibliography has been updated and expanded to include the latest and best resources available. This edition continues to reflect expert insights gathered from Chicago's own staff and from an advisory board of publishing experts from across the profession. It also includes suggestions inspired by emails, calls, and even tweets from readers. No matter how much the means of communication change, The Chicago Manual of Style remains the ultimate resource for those who care about getting the details right.