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Chicago Style: Audiovisual Sources

A guide to writing papers and citing sources in Chicago style.


Remember that your notes should be indicated by a superscript number. In order to insert a superscript, first type the number, then highlight it with your mouse. From here, you can either right-click and select the 'Font' option, then check the 'Superscript' box, or hold down Control and Shift and press the + key. For Macs, use the COMMAND key instead of Control. You can also use the 'Font' controls in your toolbar.

Rules for Audiovisual Notes

Notes for audio and video sources follow the same format. Include as much information as possible about the creators, and make sure to include a URL for online items and a description of the medium for physical materials.

  1. Performer Name: (firstname, middlename, lastname).
  2. "Title of Piece", in quotation marks (if part of a larger work).
  3. Title of Work (in italicized characters).
  4. 'by’, if necessary (e.g. composed by, directed by)
  5. Composer Name: and other content creators, such as the writer, when necessary.
  6. Publisher Name: of the publishing/recording company.
  7. ID Number: for some recordings.
  8. Copyright: date or date of production.
  9. Medium: of the audiovisual material being used (e.g. CD, DVD, radio broadcast, etc).
  10. Timestamp: (if source happens at a specific point in the recording)
  11. URL/DOI: for online materials.

The basic layout for the note follows:

[indented tab]1. Performer (firstname lastname), Title of piece, “Title of larger work,” by Creator(s) (firstname lastname), Publishing/recording company, ID# (if necessary), production date, medium, time of citation, URL/DOI.


Audio Recordings

1. Billie Holiday, vocal performance of “I’m a Fool to Want You,” by Joel Herron, Frank Sinatra, and Jack Wolf,

recorded February 20, 1958, with Ray Ellis, on Lady in Satin, Columbia CL 1157, 331/3 rpm.

2. New York Ensemble, with Edward Carroll (trumpet) and Edward Brewer (organ), Art of the Trumpet, recorded at the

Madeira Festival, June 1-2, 1981, Vox/Turnabout, PVT 7183, 1982, compact disc.

3. The Fireside Treasury of Folk Songs, vol. 1, orchestra and chorus dir. Mitch Miller, Golden Record A198:17A-B,

1958, 331/3 rpm.

Video Recordings

4. Louis J. Mihalyi, Landscapes of Zambia, Central Africa (Santa Barbara, CA: Visual Education, 1975), 35mm

slides, 40 frames.

          5. Michael Curtis and Gregory S. Malins, “The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy,” Friends, season 3, episode 1, directed by Gail Mancuso, aired September 19, 1996 (Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2003), DVD.

6. Naomi Klein, "Addicted to Risk," December 2010, TED video, 19:49,