Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

APA Guide: Other Common Sources

A guide to writing papers and citing sources in American Psychological Association style.

Formatting

For a References page, your citations need to be double spaced and have a hanging indent. A hanging indent just means that every line after the first in your citation is indented 0.5". 

In Microsoft Word (PC or Mac), highlight your citation and right click on it. Select "Paragraph" in the menu that appears, then under "Indentation" click on the Special drop down and select "Hanging". Make sure the "By" field is set to 0.5".

Films

The basic format for citing a motion picture is:

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or 

distributor.

Smith, J. D. (Producer), & Smithee, A. F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

If the film is not available in wide distribution, add the following to the citation after the country of origin: (Available from Distributor name, full address and zip code).

Harris, M. (Producer), & Turley, M. J. (Director). (2002). Writing labs: A history [Motion picture]. United States. (Available from Purdue University

Pictures, 500 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907).

Television

In the following citations, include as much information as is available.

The basic format for citing from television is as follows:

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of broadcast or copyright). Title of broadcast [Television broadcast title or Television series

title]. In P. Producer (Producer). City, state of origin: Studio or distributor.

When citing a single episode from a series, add the title of the series in italics after the producer's name.

Wendy, S. W. (Writer) & Martian, I. R. (Director). (1986). The rising angel and the falling ape [Television series episode]. In D. Dude (Producer), 

Creatures and monsters. Los Angeles, CA: Belarus Studios.

For a broadcast, such as a news show, which may not have individual title names, cite the name of the show as the title and indicate it is a broadcast in brackets. Provide the full date of the broadcast.

Important, I. M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The nightly news hour [Television broadcast]. New York, NY: Central Broadcasting Service.

To cite an entire television series, list the producer, year that the series began, title, [Television series], city and state of origin, and studio or distributor.

Bellisario, D. L. (Producer). (1992). Exciting action show [Television series]. Hollywood, CA: American Broadcasting Company.

Music Recording

For citing music, treat the songwriter as the author, not the artist of the version cited. Note that the artist's name is written normally, not last name first and initialized first name. If the artist is the same as the songwriter, do not list the artist twice. The basic format follows:

Songwriter, W. W. (Date of copyright). Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from song writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording].

Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date).

Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London, England: 

Big Pig Music Limited.

All examples on this page taken from Purdue Online Writing Lab (https://owl.purdue.edu)