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Nursing: Research


Medical Research

Evidence-Based Practice


The use of best evidence to make informed decisions about individual patient care by integrating clinical expertise with external clinical evidence from systematic research.


Pyramid of Empirical Evidence 

Filtered information is a result of quality studies that often offer recommendations for practice. Examples of filtered information are systematic reviews, meta analyses, and clinical guidelines. Unfiltered literature comes from primary information resources. Unfiltered information should be reviewed for validity and reliability. Examples of unfiltered information are randomized control trials, cohort studies, and case studies. 

Tufts University (2019). Community Health 30. Retrieved from

Center for Evidence-Based Medicine