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MLA Style: Other Common Sources

A guide to writing papers and citing sources in Modern Language Association style.


For a Works Cited page, your citations need to be double spaced and have a hanging indent. A hanging indent just means that every line after the first in your citation is indented 0.5". 

In Microsoft Word (PC or Mac), highlight your citation and right click on it. Select "Paragraph" in the menu that appears, then under "Indentation" click on the Special drop down and select "Hanging". Make sure the "By" field is set to 0.5".

Digital Files

For digital files, determine the type of work and follow the rules for that citation, but include the name of the digital format (PDF, JPEG file, Microsoft Word file, MP3, et cetera) at the end of the citation. If applicable, a permalink, URL, or DOI can also be included.


For a personal interview, one which you conducted yourself, use the following format:

Name of interviewee. Personal interview. Date.

Smith, Jane. Personal interview. 19 May 2014.

If you are using a published interview, either in print or broadcast, again list the interview by the interviewee. If the interview is part of a larger work (book, TV program, film series) place the title of the interview in quotation marks and italicize the name of the larger work. If the interview does not have its own title, use the phrase "Interview by (name of interviewer)" instead.

Gaitskill, Mary. Interview with Charles Bock. Mississippi Review, vol. 27, no. 3, 1999, pp. 129-50.

Amis, Kingsley. "Mimic and Moralist." Interviews with Britain's Angry Young Men, by Dale Salwak, Borgo P, 1984.

Interviews published online follow the same format as other published interviews, but include a URL or permalink after the date of publication. A date of last access is also suggested.

Speeches and Lectures

Provide the speaker's name, title of the speech (if available) in quotation marks, title of the conference or meeting and name of the organization. Also include the name of the venue, city, and a description of the presentation. Descriptors include address, lecture, reading, keynote, and conference presentation.

Stein, Bob. "Reading and Writing in the Digital Era." Discovering Digital Dimensions, Computers and Writing Conference, 23 May 2003, Union Club 

Hotel, West Lafayette, IN. Keynote Address.

For a panel discussion, including questions and discussion following a presentation, treat any panel members as authors and indicate if they are formal panelists. Follow the name(s) of the panelist(s) with the title of the discussion, which may be the same as a presentation- the presentation and the following discussion are cited separately. Follow the title with the title of the event, date, and location.

Bavis, Jim and Stein, Tammi, panelists. Panel discussion. Dawn or Doom Conference, 4 Nov. 2018, Stewart hall, Purdue University, West Lafayette,


Pieces of Art

Physical works of art- paintings, sculptures, and photographs- are cited by providing the artist's name, title of the work, and date of completion. Be as accurate as possible with the date, but a year will do. Also include the name of the institution which houses the art and the location if not named in the institution.

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800, Museo del Prado, Madrid.

If you are referencing a photographic reproduction of artwork, treat the book or website as a container and list the relevant information at the end of the citation- adding the title of the book in italics followed by edition, authors/editors, place of publication, and page of the photo.

Music is cited based on its medium. You will always start with the artist's name (this can be an individual or a band's name), followed by the title of the song, album title, production company/record label, and year of release. If the album was accessed digitally (via a service like Spotify or as an online original album), include a URL or permalink at the end of the citation.

Nirvana. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind, Geffen, 1991.

Films and Television

Films are listed by title. Their citations should include director(s), film studio or distributor, and release year. If relevant to your paper, you can also include performer names after the director(s).

Citizen Kane. Directed by Orson Welles, performances by Orson Welles, Joseph Cotten, and Dorothy Comingore, RKO Radio Pictures, 1941.

If you are focusing on the work of a particular director or performer, you may also cite with the name of the performer or director, followed by their title and the other key information.

Lucas, George, director. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.

Television is cited differently depending on if you are citing an episode from a DVD recording, broadcast, or digital service, or citing an entire series. In general, if citing an episode, you will start with the episode's title, followed by either the title of the show or the title of the collection. Writer(s) and director(s) are optional, and you will end the citation with the name of the distributor and the date of distribution. The following citation is for a DVD release of Friends.

"The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Friends: The Complete Sixth Season, written by Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen, directed by Kevin Bright,

Warner Brothers, 2004.

Broadcast programs, both TV and radio, should include the network, station call letters (if applicable), and the city and date of broadcast.

"The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox, WXIA, Atlanta, 19 Jul. 1998.

For citing an episode from a streaming service, you will want to include season and episode number as well as a URL or permalink. Note that the date here is for the original broadcast of the episode.

"94 Meetings." Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix,

To cite an entire series, alphabetize by the creator's last name, not the name of the series. Your date will be the year that the show ended, or the current year if the show is still airing.

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

As with films, you can also emphasize an aspect of a show, including a director or actor, by including that information in the citation.

"94 Meetings." Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, 

Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

To emphasize a character or actor as a whole in a show, follow the same formula as emphasizing a director or actor in a film. In this case the date range will encompass the entirety of the show's lifetime.

Poehler, Amy, performer. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2009-2015.

All examples on this page taken from Purdue Online Writing Lab (